The EFTA Surveillance Authority comprises Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway
The Agency and ESA - the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) Surveillance Authority, comprising Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway - have concluded a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to put in place practical arrangements to ensure good cooperation between ESA and ACER in relation to the European electricity and natural gas markets.
On 5 May 2017, the European Economic Area (EEA) Joint Committee incorporated into the EEA Agreement the 3rd Energy Package. The 3rd Energy Package improves the functioning of the internal energy market and resolves certain structural problems. It also established ACER. The 3rd Energy Package entered into force in the EEA Agreement on 3 October 2019.
ESA has been vested with the powers to adopt binding decisions addressed to national regulatory authorities of the EEA EFTA States. ESA's role in the EEA EFTA States mirrors the role of ACER in the EU Member States.