What is market abuse?
Answer: The definitions in REMIT are based on the definitions in MAD, but tailored to the gas and electricity markets. Market abuse means insider dealing and market manipulation, which have become explicitly prohibited with the entry into force of REMIT.
The following seven types of behaviour may amount to market abuse, the first three of which relate to insider trading, the last four to market manipulation, including attempted market manipulation:
1. insider trading – when an insider trades, or tries to trade, on the basis of inside information;
2. improper disclosure of inside information – where an insider improperly discloses inside information to another person, unless such disclosure is made in the normal course of the exercise of their employment, profession or duties;
3. recommending on the basis of inside information – where an insider is recommending or inducing another person, on the basis of inside information, to acquire or dispose of wholesale energy products to which that information relates;
4. false/misleading transactions – trading, or placing orders to trade, which gives, or is likely to give, false or misleading signals as to the supply of, demand for, or price of wholesale energy products;
5. price positioning – trading, or placing orders to trade, which secures or attempts to secure, by a person, or persons acting in collaboration, the price of one or several wholesale energy products at an artificial level, unless the person who entered into the transaction or issued the order to trade establishes that his reasons for doing so are legitimate and that that transaction or order to trade conforms to accepted market practices on the wholesale energy market concerned;
6. transactions involving fictitious devices/deception – trading, or placing orders to trade, which employs fictitious devices or any other form of deception or contrivance; and
7. dissemination of false and misleading information – giving out information that conveys a false or misleading impression about a wholesale energy product where the person doing this knows the information to be false or misleading.
 Directive 2014/57/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014 on criminal sanctions for market abuse (market abuse directive, MAD).